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Bicycle injuries and helmet use: a systematic review and meta-analysis. We are sure you will find a bike that suits your bicycle needs. Bicycle helmets - a review of their effectiveness: a critical review of the literature. The post’s conclusion is appropriate – helmets can and do reduce serious head injuries and each rider should consider those risks and think about how lucky they feel when they get on their bike – as these events are typically random. Biomechanical analysis of head injuries related to bicycle accidents and a new bicycle helmet concept. Radet for Sikker Trafik, Copenhagen. A meta-analyses of the effects of bicycle helmets on injuries, Bicycle injuries and helmet use: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Overestimation of the effectiveness of the bicycle helmet by the use of odds ratios, Bicycle helmet effectiveness is not overstated, Bicycle helmets are highly effective at preventing head injury during head impact: Head-form accelerations and injury criteria for helmeted and unhelmeted impacts, Current standards for sports and automotive helmets: a review, The protective effect of a helmet in three bicycle accidents—A finite element study, A computational simulation study of the influence of helmet wearing on head injury risk in adult cyclists, Helmet legislation and admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries in Canadian provinces and territories: interrupted time series analysis, The effect of the Swedish bicycle helmet law for children: An interrupted time series study, The impact of bicycle helmet legislation on cycling fatalities in Australia, The risk compensation theory and bicycle helmets, Bicycle helmets and risky behaviour: A systematic review, Recommend or mandate? Shipping costs €3,95 - per order - Delivery Time 1 to 2 business days (in the Netherlands). [11]. Opschakelen naar meer verkeersveiligheid; naar maximale verkeersveiligheid voor en door iedereen. According to different researchers [3] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [60], the test procedure should be extended to include an ‘angled impact’ or ‘oblique’ test. A bicycle helmet is intended to protect cyclists against head and brain injuries when they are involved in crashes. The fact sheet Cyclists provides a broader discussion of cyclist safety and measures to improve it. In: Journal of American College Health, vol. in Zeeland. Intelligent technologies may also be applied to cars to make cycling safer. Case-control research into the effectiveness of bicycle helmets is done when there are no data about the (differences in) bicycle kilometres travelled by helmet users and non-users (exposure). After visiting the Netherlands recently I noticed an interesting phenomenon. Reasons not to wear a helmet are that the bicycle ride is too short and a helmet ‘therefore not needed’, that the helmet is uncomfortable (too hot or too cold) and that the cyclist’s peers do not wear helmets either. That helmet use during sports activities has become commonplace in the Netherlands, is also shown by the results of a questionnaire study among Dutch touring and sports cyclists; almost all (96%) reported wearing a helmet at all times [8]. A helmet should at least comply with European technical standards (see the question Which requirements should a (good) helmet meet?). They have examined 23 studies/data sets and conclude that 2 of these studies support the hypothesis that mandatory helmets lead to a decrease of cycling, whereas 13 studies do not, and 8 studies show mixed results. Since cycling culture and helmet use abroad are different from culture and usage in the Netherlands, it remains unclear how these results could be translated to the Dutch situation. Bicycle helmet campaigns generally lead to an increase of helmet use, but sometimes the effect is only temporary. Oblique impact testing of bicycle helmets. SWOV, Den Haag. & Willinger, R. (2012). & Cataldo, S. (2010). These are so-called ‘best estimates’, meaning that it has been established with 95% certainty that the risk reduction for serious head/brain injury is between 54% and 65% and for fatal head/brain injury between 44% and 85%. Ross, T.P., Ross, L.T., Rahman, A. It is possible, that bicycle crashes in the Netherlands may be of a different nature, which has consequences for the protective effect of bicycle helmets. SWOV has estimated the potential reduction of cycling casualties in the Netherlands if all cyclists wore helmets at all times [39]. Is helmet use mandatory for (speed) pedelecs? A high percentage of cyclists – and pedestrians – killed here are run over by heavy trucks. In Finland, helmet use increased by approximately 20 percentage points after the introduction of legislation (without enforcement) [14]. [47]. Weijermars, W.A.M., Boele-Vos, M.J., Stipdonk, H.L. & Hillman, M. (2001). In: Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol. [5]. Towner, E., Dowswell, T., Burkes, M., Dickinson, H., et al. From the results it appears that the demand for child bicycle helmets has increased in the Netherlands strongly in the mid-1990s. Should Helmets Be Worn? relative to the prevalence of (serious) head and brain injuries among cyclists. Dennis, J., Ramsay, T., Turgeon, A.F. What do you need to know about the Netherlands? Bicycle helmet use among schoolchildren--the influence of parental involvement and children's attitudes. Independent! In: Injury prevention: journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention, vol. Doctors […] In compliance with the European standard, the effectiveness of bicycle helmets is tested by having the helmet impact on a flat surface (‘flat anvil’) at a speed of approximately 20 km/hour and on a ‘curb’ surface (‘curb anvil’) at a speed of approximately 17 km/hour. Bicycle helmets: head impact dynamics in helmeted and unhelmeted oblique impact tests. It is estimated that a bicycle helmet will reduce the risk of serious brain damage in a fall from a height of 1.5 metres from almost 100% to 10%; and in a fall from a height of 2 metres to approximately 30% [32]. In: Journal of safety research, vol. Evaluatie fietshelmcampagne 'Coole kop, helm op!' If someone were to suggest otherwise, you might wonder if they’d rather wear a tinfoil hat instead. 4, p. 1148-1160. Also, I don’t do helmets because in my opionon I don’t need one, I don’t fall off my bike, I don’t plan to, so until I feel differently, I will continue to wear my baseball cap when I am riding my bike. That is why case-control studies are standard in this area of research [29]. A bicycle helmet does not prevent crashes, but in case of a fall or a crash, a helmet protects the head by the energy absorbing foam lining of the helmet. In: BMJ : British Medical Journal, vol. In: Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol. Nederlandse Vereniging voor Neurchirurgie. What would you do with the helmet all the time? [3]. 60, p. 245-253. This NTA 8776 helmet is a helmet that complies with the requirements in the Dutch Technical Agreement (NTA) 8776. HOPE: Helmet Optimization in Europe. (2008). SWOV, Den Haag. These helmets are not only intended to protect against head and brain injuries but also to prevent crashes. Helmet use is almost zero in the Netherlands, but in London, almost two thirds of cyclists wear a helmet, more than in any other city. Olivier, J., Boufous, S. & Grzebieta, R. (2019). Antwerp, Belgium. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. If you were to put a helmet on a child while they walked around your garden people would think you’ve lost the plot. 3-4, p. 282-289. Schedel- en hersenletsel. Anal. In: Injury Prevention, vol. In: International journal of epidemiology, vol. SWOV, Den Haag. Globally, there are 28 countries where helmet use is mandatory. Aarts, L., Eenink, R. & Weijermars, W. (2014). Onderzoek naar de voor- en nadelen. 7, nr. In other words, most helmeted cyclists in the Netherlands are engaged in a competitive activity, with very few making utility trips on the traditional style of Dutch bicycle. As a Dutch I believe the best reason for not wearing helmets in the Netherlands is because it would discourage cycling (more then you can imagine in a country where cycling is not the main culture). In subsequent years, helmet use again decreased, but remained slightly higher than it was at the start. [Summary in English]. Head impact conditions in the case of cyclist falls. The difference between the two is the way the chin strap is fastened: the chin strap of children’s helmets snaps off in case the helmet snags, which prevents the child from choking [52]. For speed pedelecs (pedal assistance up to 45 km/hour), however, helmet use has been mandatory since 1 January 2017. [23]. [51]. New data and analysis released by DEKRA Accident Research, covering 12,000 cyclists and e-Scooter users across Europe has found London to have Europe’s highest helmet use. The Dutch government, private safety organizations and cyclists' groups all tend to agree on the following propositions: Promoting the use of bicycle helmets runs counter to present government policies that are aimed at the primary prevention of crashes (as opposed to secondary prevention) and at stimulating the use of the bicycle as a general health measure. How the Dutch raise kids... – DutchReview, Miss the Dutch snow already? I bought a helmet for my ride to the UK reporting for BBC Newsnight on the differences between cycling in The Netherlands and the UK. My local bike … 92% of cyclists die because cars smash into them. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Barriers to wearing bicycle safety helmets in the netherlands. In general, bicycle helmets are not a familiar sight in Dutch streets. 149, nr. This foam lining crushes and reduces the impact on the brain. SWOV Fact sheet, June 2019. (2016). Only the three countries of Argentina, Australia, and New Zealand currently both require and enforce universal use of helmets by cyclists. In: International Journal of Crashworthiness, vol. We're constantly hunting for the latest, greatest, and most Dutch spots for our readers. Here Is a List of The Best Dutch Bike Brands: Gazelle; Batavus; Veloretti; Koga ; Van Nicholas; Sensa; Seine; Cortina; VanMoof; Bakfiets.nl; Babboe; Urban Arrow; Azor; Volare; Traditional city bikes. [63]. In these tests, helmets were used meeting the legal US requirements. The risk compensation theory and bicycle helmets. Stigson, H., Rizzi, M., Ydenius, A., Engström, E., et al. In which countries is bicycle helmet use mandatory? The Netherlands is home of cycling culture. A legal requirement is an important reason for helmet use. 8, nr. Corrigendum to: “Publication bias and time-trend bias in meta-analysis of bicycle helmet efficacy: A re-analysis of Attewell, Glase and McFadden, 2001” [Accid. Current European standards for bicycle helmets are based on an impact speed of 17 and 20 km/hour and simulate a fall from a bicycle. [9]. In case of a crash or fall, its effectiveness decreases as the impact speed increases. The foam lined interior is connected to the smooth hard exterior of the helmet. Head rotation during a fall may be reduced by an extra layer in the helmet that moves along with the head (the so-called Multi-Directional Impact Protection Systems - MIPS) [3] [4]. There are, however no concrete indications for a different outcome. & Lee, H.P. Bezuidenhoutseweg 62, 2594 AW The Hague If you enforce helmet law on cyclists, you’re telling people that cycling is a dangerous activity. Right?! This method has, however, also been criticised, since it could result in an overestimation of the effectiveness of bicycle helmets [30]. NVvN (2015). 11, nr. Conventional wisdom in the bigger part of the world tells us that the helmet is a must if we want to ride our bikes safely. Bicycle helmet wearing and the risk of head, face, and neck injury: a French case–control study based on a road trauma registry. A possible explanation is that motorists consider helmeted cyclists to be more skilled than cyclists without helmets, and therefore use smaller safety margins. It could stop something from being a minor incident into a catastrophic disaster. Also see the question What is the effect of helmet use on the popularity of cycling?. They are supposed to be thrown away any time you drop them. These studies looked at the share of cycling casualties with head or brain injuries before the intervention and during a series of fixed times after the intervention. Some researchers claim that the positive effects of bicycle helmets are limited because cyclists adapt their behaviour (e.g. The table below provides an overview of countries where helmets have been mandatory since what effective date; if this only applies to children this is indicated by ‘age limit’ [17]. [1]. Mills, N.J. & Gilchrist, A. Stichting Consument en Veiligheid, Amsterdam. You have entered an incorrect email address! 2, p. 89-91. The second study is a mostly qualitative analysis of the available literature [9]. The speeds in a collision with a motor vehicle may, however, be much higher. A Dutch public support study among (road safety) organisations showed that measures encroaching on a sense of freedom are considered to be most controversial [23]. New legislation requiring cyclists riding certain e-bikes to wear helmets is set to become law in the Netherlands in January, and may trigger law changes accross the European Union. Sport cyclists DO wear helmets in the Netherlands, and in Denmark. Cyclists often find helmets uncomfortable, particularly for short rides (see the question Why do cyclists choose (not) to wear bicycle helmets?). CROW. (2016). So in the words of a spoilt teenager who’s annoyed at his parents, “it’s my life I’ll do what I want.”. R-2014-37. The final report of COST Action TU1101. The effect of (mandatory) bicycle helmets on bicycle use is not clear. However, there is no a priori indication of a larger or smaller effect in the Netherlands. It is also less strict than standards in the United States and Australia, for example. [31]. The speed pedelec helmet can be an ‘ordinary’ moped helmet that complies with the ECE22.05 standard, or it can be a helmet that complies with the NTA8776:2016 standard [51]. If you enforce helmet law on cyclists, you’re telling people that cycling is a dangerous activity. Which requirements should a (good) bicycle helmet meet? Olivier, J. The Hövding airbag had positive outcomes in different tests [4] [61]. Table 1. Also, if we had the wear helmets all the time, it would be pretty annoying taking it with you. It’s the context in which cycling occurs. Recommend or mandate? Berg, P. & Westerling, R. (2001). A different current development is the airbag for cyclists. The question Do bicycle helmets also have adverse effects? Kurt, M., Laksari, K., Kuo, C., Grant, G.A., et al. The effect of (mandatory) helmets on the use of bicycles is not unequivocal. 120, p. 239-249. (2012). Observational study of compliance with Queensland bicycle helmet laws. In European countries where they are not mandatory, helmets are also worn. 2, p. 76-82. After Denmark, Holland is the European country with the least accidents in which a cyclist is killed per cycled kilometre*. Department for Transport, London. Folksam. When I saw the title question, I figured it was because bicycles greatly outnumber cars in Amsterdam and most towns in the Netherlands. A review study mentions results of 19 studies about campaigns stimulating helmet use [50]. Even though nobody wears bike helmets in the Netherlands, the fatality rate there is six times smaller than that of the United States. Towards advanced bicycle helmet test methods. Head and brain injuries are relatively common among cyclists. A cyclist airbag fitted onto the car is an example of this (also see the SWOV fact sheet Cyclists). 9, p. e4040019-e4040019. Onderzoek naar de voor- en nadelen, Head impact conditions in the case of cyclist falls, Differences in impact performance of bicycle helmets during oblique impacts, Bicycle helmets: head impact dynamics in helmeted and unhelmeted oblique impact tests, Oblique impact testing of bicycle helmets, Towards advanced bicycle helmet test methods, Differences in the protective capabilities of bicycle helmets in real-world and standard-specified impact scenarios, The European Union’s role in promoting the safety of cycling: proposals for a safety component in a future eu cycling strategy, HOPE: Helmet Optimization in Europe. Annual percentage of cyclists with serious head/brain injuries (MAIS2+) as main or secondary diagnosis, the number relative to all hospitalised seriously injured cyclists in that age group; over the period 2010-2014 (Sources: Dutch Hospital Data – LMR/LBZ; CBS – Onderzoek Verplaatsingen in Nederland). In the Netherlands, riders of speed e-bikes have to wear a helmet that conforms to special requirements. Verschueren, P. (2009). “I cycle to work on a city bike … (2016). Yet, in recent meta-analyses of the effect of bicycle helmets [28] [29] no increased risk of neck injury was found. Drivers overtaking bicyclists: Objective data on the effects of riding position, helmet use, vehicle type and apparent gender. Also see the question How effective are bicycle helmets in preventing (fatal) head injuries among cyclists? In: International Cycling Safety Conference, 18-19 November. Australia was the first country to enact mandatory bicycle helmet use for all cyclists. The survey results indicate that as of 2017, Giro helmets came first in the top five of most bought bicycle helmet brands in the Netherlands. For speed pedelecs a different, more robust helmet has been developed that protects a larger part of the head (also see the question Is helmet use mandatory for (speed) pedelecs?). So, instead of fear mongering about the importance of helmets the Dutch are concentrating on the environment. [8]. 108, nr. [42]. It adds style and function to the helmet. The latest large-scale campaign in the Netherlands (in the province of Zeeland) also showed an effect, but only in the first year of the campaign [18]. When I saw the title question, I figured it was because bicycles greatly outnumber cars in Amsterdam and most towns in the Netherlands. Miss Cellania • Saturday, February 22, 2020 at 10:10 AM. Most people associate the Netherlands with cycling – but did you know that this beautiful land of tulips and windmills is also the safest place to cycle in the entire … Continue reading → Wearing bicycle helmets could save up to 85 lives a year in the Netherlands. Bicycle helmets are highly effective at preventing head injury during head impact: Head-form accelerations and injury criteria for helmeted and unhelmeted impacts. 46, nr. : Description Size chart Uvex Finale Junior Kids Bicycle Helmet With cool designs, kids can shred the trails in the woods. 43 (2011) 1245–1251]. School of Mathematics and Statistics, Transport and Road Safety Research Centre; UNSW, Sydney. [58]. Bicycle helmet wearing is not associated with  close motor vehicle passing: A re-analysis of Walker, 2007. Saying that cars kill cyclist not lack of helmets is like saying bullets not guns kill people, a helmet helps reduce head injuries on pact by car or falling on the ground. But there’s a lot more to it than that, due to the culture of cycling. Other road users may also adapt their behaviour: they may behave differently towards helmeted cyclists than towards unhelmeted cyclists. Most Dutch car drivers however, have a very good awareness of cyclists and will give way where necessary. “Wild” or “reckless” aren’t words that come to mind when you think of the Dutch national character. The Dutch are not “health and safety” obsessed (unlike the UK, for example) and rarely use cycle helmets – even many moped/scooter riders will not wear them. Since 2011, children up to age 18 and all cyclists on rural roads have been obliged to wear helmets. The Helmet Fit Index – An intelligent tool for fit assessment and design customisation. In: Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol. By means of a(n) (interrupted) time series analysis, the effectiveness of an intervention (for example mandatory helmet use) may be determined by the number of casualties before and after the intervention. The Dutch aren’t known for taking unnecessary risks. In some other jurisdictions partial rules apply, such as only for children, in certain states or sub-national divisions, or … A systematic review of bicycle helmet laws enacted worldwide. Copenhagenize.com - Building Better Bicycle Cultures. & Spinks, A. In: International Journal of Impact Engineering, vol. “It’s impossible to make such a helmet and it’s unlikely that there will ever be one developed,” he explained. Helmets that warn cyclists when a vehicle approaches in their blind spot (the ‘Classon bicycle helmet’) are still being developed; it is still unclear when they will come onto the market and how effective they will be. In: Pediatrics, vol. In: Accident Analysis & Prevention, vol. Cyklistundersøgelse [Survey on cyclists]. In some countries a lot of roads are forbidden for bicyclists. This study compared injuries of helmeted and non-helmeted cyclists by combining the data of 55 (primarily) case-control studies from different countries meeting strict scientific requirements. (2019). In studies using computer simulations, both the impact on the head as well as the possibly protective effect of a helmet are simulated in a model. This meta-analysis is a follow-up to a previous meta-analysis by Olivier & Creighton [29] that showed similar effects: a 69% reduction of the risk of serious head/brain injury (with 95% certainty of a reduction between 63% and 75%) and a 65% reduction of the risk of fatal head/brain injury (with 95% certainty of a reduction between 12 and 86%). Let us know in the comments below! – DutchReview, Independent! Bicycle helmets sold within the European Union should comply with European directives. The occasion was a debate about bike helmets. The law change will require cyclists riding 'speed' electronically power assisted cycles (S-EPACs) - or more accurately e-bikes that can travel at speeds of up to 45kph - to wear specially designed helmets. 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As bicycle use is not associated with the helmet philosophy should change with one ’ s don'ts! Scans had not yet been invented are more likely to receive traumatic brain injuries among cyclists Adolescent,! While driving of proportion Engström, E., Dowswell, T., Turgeon, A.F na cool., children are more likely to receive traumatic brain injuries issue for me is I find them not protects.

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